A vulnerability is a security weakness typically found in programs and operating systems leaving computing systems open to malware and hacker attack. When vulnerabilities are exposed, software vendors will provide fixes or patches for their products.

A variant refers to a new version of malware based on existing malware with modifications. Today’s cybercriminals continually modify malware in order to improve or get as much mileage as possible from it. Variants help researchers differentiate versions based on their routines and other specific characteristics, and are used to identify and recommend solutions to remove or defend against them.

Threat hunting as an essential component of security. It is the proactive, stealthy, and surgical detection and eviction of adversaries inside your network without known indicators of compromise. Hunting is an offense-based strategy; hunting is thinking like the attacker.
Threats are security issues that include the following: malware, grayware/adware, spyware, spam, phishing, and bots/botnets.

A targeted attack refers to a type of threat in which threat actors actively pursue and compromise a target entity’s infrastructure while maintaining anonymity. These attackers have a certain level of expertise and have sufficient resources to conduct their schemes over a long-term period. They can adapt, adjust, or improve their attacks to counter their victim’s defenses.

A Security Operations Center (SOC) is an organized and highly skilled team whose mission is to continuously monitor and improve an organization's security posture while preventing, detecting, analyzing, and responding to cyber security incidents with the aid of both technology and well-defined processes and procedures.
a chatbot is a computer program designed to simulate conversation with human users, especially over the Internet. When applied to security, chatbots use natural language understanding to accelerate attack detecion and remediation
A rootkit is a program (or collection of programs) that installs and executes code on a system without end user consent or knowledge. It uses stealth to maintain a persistent and undetectable presence on the machine. Rootkits do not infect machines malware, but rather, seek to provide an undetectable environment for malicious code to execute. Rootkits are installed on systems via social engineering, upon execution of malware, or simply by browsing a malicious website. Once installed, an attacker can perform virtually any function on the system to include remote access, eavesdropping, as well as hide processes, files, registry keys and communication channels.
ransomware is a type of malicious software designed to block access to a computer system until a sum of money is paid.

Proactive cybersecurity or proactive cyber defense means acting in anticipation to oppose an attack against computers and networks. Proactive cyber defense will most often require additional cybersecurity from internet service providers.