a chatbot is a computer program designed to simulate conversation with human users, especially over the Internet. When applied to security, chatbots use natural language understanding to accelerate attack detecion and remediation
A rootkit is a program (or collection of programs) that installs and executes code on a system without end user consent or knowledge. It uses stealth to maintain a persistent and undetectable presence on the machine. Rootkits do not infect machines malware, but rather, seek to provide an undetectable environment for malicious code to execute. Rootkits are installed on systems via social engineering, upon execution of malware, or simply by browsing a malicious website. Once installed, an attacker can perform virtually any function on the system to include remote access, eavesdropping, as well as hide processes, files, registry keys and communication channels.
ransomware is a type of malicious software designed to block access to a computer system until a sum of money is paid.

Proactive cybersecurity or proactive cyber defense means acting in anticipation to oppose an attack against computers and networks. Proactive cyber defense will most often require additional cybersecurity from internet service providers.

A payload is the action that a threat performs, apart from its main behavior. Payloads can range from stealing personal information to deleting the contents of a hard drive.
Obfuscation refers to the process of concealing something important, valuable, or critical. Cybercriminals use obfuscation to conceal information such as files to be downloaded, sites to be visited, etc.
A memory-resident program has the ability to stay in the computer’s memory after execution and to continuously run. Typically backdoors stay in memory to await commands, as do . file infectors to infect files as they are opened. Some worms stay in memory to continually send email.
A malwareless attack is one in which an attacker uses existing software, allowed applications and authorized protocols to carry out malicious activities. Non-malware attacks are capable of gaining control of computers without downloading any malicious files, hence the name. Malwareless attacks are also referred to as fileless, memory-based or “living-off-the-land” attacks.
Malware is a general category of malicious code that includes viruses, worms and Trojan horse programs.