Hash values can be thought of as fingerprints for files. The contents of a file are processed through a cryptographic algorithm, and a unique numerical value – the hash value - is produced that identifies the contents of the file. If the contents are modified in any way, the value of the hash will also change significantly. Two algorithms are currently widely used to produce hash values: the MD5 and SHA1 algorithms.
Hacktivism can be described as the use of malicious techniques such as denial of service attacks for political reasons, instead of monetary gain or personal reasons, as is more frequently the case. Among those that have been affected by hacktivism are countries, cable news channels, and certain politicians.
Hacking tools are programs that generally crack or break computer and network security measures. Hacking tools have different capabilities depending on the systems they have been designed to penetrate. System administrators have been known to use similar tools - if not the same programs - to test security and identify possible avenues for intrusion.
A hacker is a person who creates and modifies computer software and hardware for either negative or positive reasons. Criminal hackers (cybercriminals) create malware in order to commit crimes.

Fileless malware is a variant of computer related malicious software that exists exclusively as a computer memory-based artifact i.e. in RAM.

Exploit kits or exploit packs refer to a type of hacking toolkit that cybercriminals use to take advantage of vulnerabilities in systems/devices so they can distribute malware or do other malicious activities. They normally target popular software such as AdobeFlash ®, Java™, Microsoft Silverlight® .
An exploit is code that takes advantage of a software vulnerability or security flaw. Exploits are often incorporated into malware, which are consequently able to propagate into and run intricate routines on vulnerable computers.

Enterprise security governance is a company's strategy for reducing the risk of unauthorized access to information technology systems and data.

Endpoint protection is a term often used interchangeably with endpoint security. Endpoint protection is often used to describe security solutions that address endpoint security issues, securing and protecting endpoints against zero-day exploits, attacks, and inadvertent data leakage resulting from human error.

Endpoint detection and response is an emerging technology addressing the need for continuous monitoring and response to advanced threats. One could even make the argument that endpoint detection and response is a form of advanced threat protection.